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Harry Chandler was succeeded in by his son, Norman Chandler , who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler , became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center , whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios ; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from to Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance.
He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In , the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times—Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance.
During the s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes , more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be.
It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
Printing Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus ; the earliest known form of printing as applied to paper was woodblock printing, which appeared in China before AD. Developments in printing technology include the movable type invented by Bi Sheng around AD and the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century; the technology of printing played a key role in the development of the Renaissance and the scientific revolution, laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns, used throughout East Asia , it originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before A. The earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China, they are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty. They are the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper and appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. By the ninth century, printing on paper had taken off, the first extant complete printed book containing its date is the Diamond Sutra of By the tenth century, , copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, the Confucian classics were in print.
A skilled printer could print up to 2, double-page sheets per day. Printing spread early to Korea and Japan , which used Chinese logograms , but the technique was used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts; this technique spread to Persia and Russia. This technique was transmitted to Europe via the Islamic world, by around was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards. However, Arabs never used this to print the Quran because of the limits imposed by Islamic doctrine. Block printing, called tarsh in Arabic , developed in Arabic Egypt during the ninth and tenth centuries for prayers and amulets.
There is some evidence to suggest that these print blocks made from non-wood materials tin, lead, or clay; the techniques employed are uncertain and they appear to have had little influence outside of the Muslim world. Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world for fabric, the technique of metal block printing remained unknown in Europe. Block printing went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could elaborate; when paper became easily available, around , the technique transferred quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper.
These prints produced in large numbers from about onward. Around the mid-fifteenth-century, block-books , woodcut books with both text and images carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type. These were all short illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about and Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches.
Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than block printing. Around , the first known movable type system was created in China by Bi Sheng out of porcelain. Bi Sheng used clay type, which broke but Wang Zhen by had carved a more durable type from wood, he developed a complex system of revolving tables and number-association with written Chinese characters that made typesetting and printing more efficient.
Still, the main method in use there remained woodblock printing, which "proved to be cheaper and more efficient for printing Chinese, with its thousands of characters". Copper movable type printing originated in China at the beginning of the 12th century. It was used in large-scale printing of paper money issued by the Northern Song dynasty. Movable type spread to Korea during the Goryeo dynasty.
Around , Koreans invented a metal type movable printing using bronze; the Jikji , published in , is the earliest known metal printed book.
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Type-casting was adapted from the method of casting coins; the character was cut in beech wood, pressed into a soft clay to form a mould, bronze poured into the mould, the type was polished. The Korean form of metal movable type was described by the French scholar Henri-Jean Martin as "extremely similar to Gutenberg's". Eastern metal movable type was spread to Europe between the late 14th century and the early 15th century. Around , Johannes Gutenberg introduced the first movable type printing system in Europe, he advanced innovations in casting type based on a matrix and hand mould, adaptations to the screw-press, the use of an oil-based ink, the creation of a softer and more absorbent paper.
Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, antimony and bismuth — the same components still used today. Johannes Gutenberg started work on his printing press around , in partnership with Andreas Dritzeh. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. March 20, Los Angeles Times. The New York Times. April 15, Categories : books Debut books English-language books Memoirs of imprisonment African-American autobiographies United States biography book stubs African American stubs.
Hidden categories: All stub articles. Revision History. Related Images. YouTube Videos. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus.
The earliest known woodcut , , Buxheim , with hand-colouring. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, and is the largest U. Rubble of the L. Times building after the bombing. Times Newspaper vending machine featuring news of the Summer Olympics. Founded in , the paper has won Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper. African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term typically refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States.
Slaves processing tobacco in 17th-century Virginia. Reproduction of a handbill advertising a slave auction in Charleston , South Carolina, in Crispus Attucks , the first " martyr " of the American Revolution. He was of Native American and African-American descent. Saint Augustine of Hippo wrote Confessions , the first Western autobiography ever written, around Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne , 17th century. Cover of the first English edition of Benjamin Franklin 's autobiography, Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Ebony is a monthly magazine for the African-American market. A digest-sized sister magazine, Jet, was founded by the Johnson Publishing Company in It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, and is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains. Father Mathew Bridge , also known as Dublin Bridge. Dublin Castle , with its 13th century tower, was the fortified seat of British rule in Ireland until Henrietta Street developed in the s is the earliest Georgian street in Dublin.
Marseille is the second-largest city of France. Baptism of Clovis, ivory book cover, 9th century. BMW headquarters in Munich. Petersburg, Imperial Russia. The Moscow Kremlin egg, Istanbul, formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. The first Galata Bridge in the 19th century. Its first building was erected in —83 to house the cabinet of curiosities that Elias Ashmole gave to the University of Oxford in Wood-engraving of the Ashmolean c.
James J. Sheehan wearing his Pour le Merite in The written history of Singapore may date back to the third century. Evidence suggests that a significant trading settlement existed in Singapore during the 14th century. In the late 14th century, Singapore was under the rule of Parameswara until he was expelled by the Majapahit or the Siamese. An artist's impression of Parameswara , who ruled Singapore in the s.
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A fragment of the Singapore Stone , inscribed with an Indic script , c. Phoenix in Cannes for The Yards in May Phoenix being interviewed at the premiere of Walk the Line in Leonard Albert Kravitz is an American singer, songwriter, actor, and record producer. Kravitz performing in Madrid on June 30, On the cover of Time magazine , April Imperial Orb, Crown, and Sceptre of Austria.
Emperor Francis I wearing the Imperial Mantle and regalia. The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between and The name came from the Guinea region in West Africa, where much of the gold used to make the coins originated. James II , with elephant and castle under the bust, The liberty head design by James B.
The high relief double eagle designed by Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Side of the "high relief" double eagle showing edge lettering and surface detail. The Smithsonian specimen of the Saint Gaudens double eagle. Nash with the Los Angeles Lakers in After Nash's return to Phoenix in , they won 33 more games than they did the previous season. Nash with then-teammate Shaquille O'Neal. A coin is a small, flat, round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. An oxhide ingot from Crete. Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an "ox-hide", suggesting that they represented standardized values. Coin of Alyattes of Lydia. The earliest inscribed coinage: electrum coin of Phanes from Ephesus , BC. Reverse: Two incuse punches, each with raised intersecting lines.
Circa BC. The Miura began as a clandestine prototype, a car that had racing pedigree in a company that was entirely against motorsport. The Lotus featured a Lamborghini V Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic.
At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form, but diamond almost never converts to it. The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. One face of an uncut octahedral diamond, showing trigons of positive and negative relief formed by natural chemical etching.
The extreme hardness of diamond in certain orientations makes it useful in materials science, as in this pyramidal diamond embedded in the working surface of a Vickers hardness test er. Geologic province s of the world. The pink and orange areas are shields and platforms , which together constitute cratons.
Since , the Swiss Confederation has been a federal state of relatively autonomous cantons, some of which have a history of confederacy that goes back more than years, putting them among the world's oldest surviving republics. Divico and Julius Caesar after the Battle of Bibracte. Leonhard Euler —83 , one of the most prominent scientists in the Age of Enlightenment. Religious geography in orange: Protestant, green: Catholic.
Mesolithic petroglyph in Valcamonica , Lombardy. The largest collection of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world 10th millennium BC E. His skin is white. By one quarter of all African American men nationally were in prison or jail, on probation, or on parole. The chance that a Latino male will be in prison at least once in his lifetime is 16 percent; for African Americans that figure is 28 percent. The traditional macho nature of the contemporary street gang has evolved into a ritual of storytelling with potential for bias and embellishment, as recognized by gang scholars.
Gang members even manipulated fashion, using colored neck bandanas and sports caps to signify set affiliation. Stemming from the CCCS, Stuart Hall, Dick Hebdige, Ken Gelder and other cultural scholars explored the ways in which urban youth adapt and use emblematic rituals as symbolic responses to wider societal issues such as unemployment, poor wages or educational inequality.
The Crips responded to living in this climate of urban decay by giving structuralist meanings to their own style politics and rituals, as their Mexican American counterparts had done. Gang monikers supplant birth names, creating exciting and playful new possibilities for individual identity, as part of identification with the larger gang unit.
Kelley maintains that black youth constructed their own subcultural image as a direct response to prevalent social issues of the era. Similarly, the development of the gangsta subculture needs to be contextualized in the wider economic, political and social setting of America, California and specifically LA. The actual gang experience, with its traditions and customs, is converted into cultural form and entertainment. Hebdige notes that youth subcultures are initially highly creative in their rebellion against mainstream culture.
Despite being established as personally symbolic styles, such inventive trends frequently develop public market potential. As we will see, gang memoirists have similarly exploited subcultural appropriations as capital. The dramatic portrayal of gangs in the media spread misinformation and created moral panics. The use of the subject of gangs in recreational forms was partially sparked by the immense popularity of urban gangs for marginalized youth.
Longings for blackness certainly spurred the commercial success of rap, and its popularity was further fuelled by its candid first-person form. This music involved rapped lyrics over backing beats, often accompanied by break-dancing and graffiti, and was popular among African American and Latino youth cultures.
By the mids, a distinctive version of rap was becoming popular on the West coast, becoming increasingly pre-occupied with violent tales from the inner-city. The music provides the themes and ethos of this particular cultural movement. He includes dedications to early rap groups Public Enemy and Boogie Down Productions who had reputations for being politically conscious , as well as renowned gangsta artists Ice-T, Ice Cube and Tupac Shakur.
In the book was converted by Anderson into the provocative film produced by Oliver Stone which came out on limited release for fear of inflaming public violence following the LA riots earlier that year. Nonetheless, 50, video copies were sold during its first week, demonstrating the market for gangsta in film as well as musical forms.
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Such films would be critically acclaimed by film critics and journalists as original and factual portraits of gang life, representing ethnic poverty and societal injustices and creating a theatrical reality that captured the public imagination. In the weeks following the uprising the public watched in fascination as gang members who had been arch enemies called a truce. Boyd argues that the lonesome black gangster figures in the earlier literature of Donald Goines and Iceberg Slim were the precursors setting the stage for gangsta culture to prosper in the s.
In the three-year period up to when the movie Malcolm X was being made, sales of The Autobiography of Malcolm X increased percent. African American interest in Malcolm X and his message was revived during the conservative Reagan presidency. Rapper Ice Cube, for example, frequently referred to Malcolm X, while Tupac often referenced the black power era. The memoir also renewed an awareness of and fascination with the prison narrative genre that included works by Eldridge Cleaver and George Jackson and which had been so popular in the late s and early s.
Rodriguez did not publish from prison but similarly takes inspiration from prison authors or those who have experienced prison. Clinton, an avid book fan, was expected to encourage the expansion of the book market and increase library revenues. The trend for diverse multicultural projects continued through early with the popularity of Maya Angelou, Morrison receiving the Nobel Prize in Literature, and the founding of the American Writers of Color Literary Agency.
Both Mexican and African American gang memoirists took advantage of these riots. Alonso, who is also an independent publisher releasing the second installment of memoirs by former gang member Terrell Wright , claimed that such texts are often quietly signed or released to little acclaim. He cited the example of the riots aiding the popularity of Monster and the execution of Williams encouraging sales of Blue Rage.
Rodriguez wrote throughout the s, finally being signed by Curbstone in July In the early s, Rodriguez decided to novelize his life story, only to receive rejections from 22 publishing houses. There were also a few other Latino rap artists who were commercial triumphs, including Mellow Man Ace and Cypress Hill. To some degree this rationalizes the attitude of Bantam House and others, who initially failed to see the lucrative potential of Always Running.
The media coverage of these riots later came under extensive criticism for under-representing the Latino contribution, including Cholo involvement in the gang truce.
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In an interview with Rodriguez, the memoirist joked that his friend accused him of starting the rebellion as a means of publicizing Always Running. Rodriguez disclosed that his contract had in fact been signed prior to the uprising in April , but acknowledged that Always Running was released at a particularly appropriate point in social history. She played a crucial role in paving the way for Monster and paving the way for written gang memoirs. Shakur featured alone on the cover photograph. The program was never commissioned but Broyles saw the literary potential in Shakur, encouraging him to start writing his memoirs.
Broyles was responsible for initial drafts being published in Esquire magazine in April and instigating publishing interest in the whole text. While Broyles believed he had the only draft of Monster , Shakur quietly sent his manuscript elsewhere and a bidding war ensued before Atlantic Press emerged the victor. From Benjamin Franklin to modern-day sports stars, memoirs have regularly topped non-fiction bestselling lists. Genre can certainly function as a commercial device, for instance being used as a labeling method in bookstores.
It was only after Rodriguez re-worked the text as an autobiographical account that he secured a publisher. Similarly, when Shakur informed his publisher, Morgan Entrekin, that he wanted to focus his book on the history and development of contemporary gangs, Entrekin specified that Shakur should persevere with an autobiographical approach. Though Shakur had sent a chapter of his work to Broyles in , it was following the riots that he secured a publishing contract and interest in his memoirs suddenly escalated.
Like Rodriguez, Williams struggled to secure a publisher. The infamous former gangbanger began reading and writing on death row in the early s, encouraged by his friend Barbara Cottman Becnel. Becnel contacted Williams in when she was researching a book about the history of the Crips. She soon became a regular visitor and abandoned her initial research plans to help Williams fulfill his desire to promote gang peace. Together they published their first texts in , a series of anti-gang books aimed at elementary school children learning to read.
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Many publishers were reluctant to associate with Williams because of his controversial death row status he had experienced similar problems with his earlier texts. Eventually Williams suggested that Becnel establish Damamli Ltd. Penguin marketed the book along similar lines to Atlantic, keeping the same image of Shakur on the cover that had initially been taken for the cover of Do Or Die. From this perspective, it could be argued that the street gang memoirs that appeared from onwards sprung from the juncture between the historical popularity of the prison memoir and the new demand for gangsta cultural stories.
The latter was proven by gangsta rap and ghetto films and intensified at a particular historical moment thanks to the Rodney King riots. These three memoirs reveal a great deal about social relations, especially pertaining to race, gender, class and generational issues in an urban context at a particular historical moment. The narratives provide a window into the urban environment of LA where contemporary street gangs grew rapidly, particularly from the s onwards.