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Siam was in the 17th century an independent kingdom ruled by an absolute monarch.
The capital was at Ayuthia, where it had been set up in , and where it was to remain until its destruction by the Burmese in Bangkok was as yet no more than a fortress on the Menam river. The government of the country was carried out by the king with a chief minister, the Chakri, and second minister, the P'ra K'iang English and French " barka- lon " , together with a number of lesser officiais. Portugal was the first Western country to establish contacts with Siam, and this took place during the 16th century. The British East India Company arrived in to begin trading ; this was the first of three unsuccessful attempts to corne to a lasting trade agreement with Siam.
It failed because of the infrequency of visits of British ships to Siam, and trading was closed in Kiner Phra Narai came to the throne in , and the East India Company reopened its branches in the country in the same year. In Colbert opened a trading centre at Surat, and then at Pondicherry, and later extended business to Tenasserim and Bengal.
The first French ship to reach Siam was in — the French bishops having travelled overland. In the same year the British East India Company asked for an agreement by the King of Siam that his country would buy a given quantity of goods annually. He refused, and the English traders again abandoned their posts. It was also during the reign of Phra Narai that one of the strangest figures in Siamese history came to power. Constantin Phaulkon was a Greek, born in As a boy he joined the crew of a British ship and found employment with the East India Company. It was in the company of one of its agents, Richard Burnaby, that he first arrived in Siam where he was engaged in trading projects until he entered the service of the barkalon.
He was granted extensive powers by the king, although he was never in fact made barkalon, and foreign visitors soon realized that the only way to make any headway in Siam was by currying favour with him. The English alone were slow to realize this, to their cost ; nor had the King of England followed Louis XIV's example of sending a letter of introduction to the King of Siam, an unfortunate omission, and perhaps another reason why the English traders made so little progress. She sent more ambassadors to France in , accompanied by the P. With him were two other members of the Missions Jean Basset who went on to China in , and Etienne Manuel, both of whom were making the journey for the first time 3.
Six Jesuit mathematicians accompanied Choisy and Chaumont to Siam.
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The P. They reached Peking in February where Fontaney, by his scientific knowledge, won the Emperor's favour and helped to cure him of an illness.
In gratitude the Emperor gave the society a house in , and some land in In addition to the various clerics, there were also several on board, of whom the most important was the chevalier de Forbin, who had a long and varied military career. After his adven- tures in Siam, where he worked as an engineer in Bangkok, and defended. Of this odd collection of people, Choisy was not the only one to leave an account of the journey.
Gatty, draws several parallels with Tachard's Voyage. Michault's assertion in this work that Choisy merely copied seems totally unfouded. Certain, but not ail, of the extracts which Michault gives from Gerbillon correspond to the respective passages in Choisy, but only in so far as their content is concerned, and others deal with material that Choisy does not even mention. On the other hand, certain passages of Gerbillon's Relation correspond word for word with u. It was he who accompanied two Siamese envoys to France in , and who had a private meeting with the P. He was convinced of the utility of sending en embassy to Siam as soon as possible, and put forward the conversion of the monarch as a prime reason for this move — the first time a full-scale embassy was sent to an Eastern monarch by the King of France.
The interest of ail the parties concerned was obvious. The King was prepared to make some concessions to Christianity with this end in view, but certainly never intended to be converted himself. He presented the letter to the King, and pronounced a harangue ; he also signed a treaty with Monsieur Constance which gave Christians in Siam certain assurances of freedom of speech and conscience Journal, p. Article de Pierre Champion, Paris-Turf le 12 janvier Arqana n'est plus la seule agence de vente, au galop, en France. Osarus a vu le jour en Read more However, several lots offered at this sale have since shown talent on the tracks in France as well as overseas :.
From four outings she boasts 2 wins and 2 places. Consigned by Haras des Loges. Consigned by Haras de Clairefontaine. Innovation: on-site panoramic restaurant with a view over the sales ring. Catalogue online: www. Your browser does not appear to recognise java script.http://grandaday.co.uk/nog-conocer-mujeres.php
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Sixth Gr. Impressive win by Laurina in the Gr. The catalogue for the La Teste Breeze up sale now online. A filly by Blue Bresil added to the Maisons Laffitte sale. New national hunt sale at Maisons Laffitte : Catalogue now online. This event will be staged just before the grand "weekend de l'obstacle" at Auteuil. These young horses come from many breeding areas in France as well as Germany, England and Ireland. Selling will begin at La Teste Yearling sale. La Teste September Yearling sale catalogue now online. La Teste September yearling sale catalogue now online. Figures down at the Lion d'Angers mixed sale.
Lion d'Angers mixed sale catalogue now online! Eighth edition of the La Teste September yearling sale - Catalogue online now! Osarus La Teste Breeze-up sale: Catalogue now online.
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A mare in foal to Dabirsim tops the Clairefontaine mixed sale. January Clairefontaine mixed sale - Catalogue online now.
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Seventh edition of the La Teste yearling sale : the catalogue is now online! Solid trade at Pornichet. Additional lot for the Pornichet Breeze-Up sale. Osarus to stage a new sale in Normandy. A new dimension for the Osarus La Teste September yearling sale. Pierre Champion.
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Osarus, la petite agence qui monte. Before the sales, on Wednesday evening, a cocktail party was organized in partnership with the casino of Arcachon. Thus, all guests had the possibility to discuss in a relaxed and musical atmosphere. On Thursday, after a country buffet offered by Jean Biraben and the breeders of the South West, the sale began at 2 pm to end at 7. All figures therefore show a sharp increase compared to last year.
This Normandy based stud, which was present at the sale for the first time, was satisfied to sell the 2 yearlings presented. Angers Catalogue available online from the 21st September La firme F. Prinsen Geerligs, directeur du laboratoire de recherche sur le sucre de Java et auteur d'une histoire mondiale du sucre.
ISBN 13: 9782212539271
La banque de France y laisse aussi 20 millions de francs. La hausse des cours attire des investisseurs particuliers. Les pays du Nord en consomment beaucoup plus que les pays du Sud. Emmer, pages 32 et . Par Richard B. Mark, R. Strange, et J.